Mar 23, 2013

Art 1010 - Midterm to Final

A urinal enters an art contest.

The final portion builds upon many elements found in the previous portion (which are notes and a sample test from the Beginning to Midterm).  If you are unfamiliar with those initial terms then you need to recheck.

  • Neo-Classisim and Romanticism (late 1700s to early 1800s)
  • Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism (1840-1900)
  • 20th Century (1900-2000)
    • Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Port Art, Land Art

The Big Picture

There is a lot of material, however after studying you should be able to recall the art periods, the order, and some of the elements. Doing a study+sleep+study+sleep routine will help cement many of these topics in your brain.  If you can fill the outline then you are assured a high grade.

  • Neo-Classism and Romanticism (late 1700s to early 1800s)

    • Neo-Classical

      • Reused classical Greece and Roman themes, paintings were usually political (often in support of the state), there were elements of light and darkness (tennebrism), figures were many times idealistic.

    • Romanticism

      • This movement focused on emotion over rationality and the primacy of the individual, paintings heavily used light, often it exposed themes such as man vs man or man vs nature, there were some political paintings, and some were of landscapes which used painterly techniques (broad brush strokes, indistinct outlines between shapes, and colors blended into each other).

  • Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism (1840-1900)

    • Realism

      • Realism rejected many French Academy principles, presented average and lower class working people, composition elements changed (no particular arrangement hierarchy of genres, cropped views, linear perspectives, average female nudes, flatter walls, and even not perfectly drawn human figures)

    • Impressionism

      • Perhaps the first modern art movement, it used a painterly technique to bring a series of impressions. The Sublime can be observed here, which is the emotional overwhelming by something. Paintings had bright colors, blurry images, and the use of light was very important. Many Impressionist paintings are not accepted by the French Academy, and therefore artists created the Salon de Refuses. Many conservative art works such as landscapes, outdoor scenes, elegant parties, and so fort could be observed. There were elements of commercialism, artists targeted middle-upper class citizens.

    • Post-Impressionism

      • This is a movement were many Avant-Garde (forging ahead and going against the grain) artists rise. Post-Impressionism builds upon Impressionism, and uses Pointillism, deliberate thick brushwork, and geometric designs that use shape and color.

  • 20th Century (1900-2000)

    • Fauvism

      • A movement with the emphasis in strong color and patterns, space was flat.

    • Cubism

      • Analytic Cubism

        • Developed by Pablo Picasso and Braque. Invented specific shapes and details that would represent a whole object or person. It was close to impossible to figure out the images as objects were heavily distorted and geometric (space and shape). These paintings had no color, and were flat.

      • Synthetic Cubism

        • Colors were introduced, flatness remained, usually had subject mater that was easier to interpret, and geometric shapes were simplified.

    • Futurism

      • Futurism focused on futuristic themes, originated in Italy. Elements include speed, motion, and dynamism. At times it's reminiscent of cubism. Many subjects include trains, movement, chaos, cars, and even text.

    • Dada

      • An odd movement that doesn't have a direct meaning, embraces non-sense, doesn't take itself seriously, uses repetition, and sometimes made fun of other movements. It used Readymade objects. It had conceptual features (audience's reaction).

    • Surrealism

      • A movement that used Sigmund Freud subconscious ideas. Paintings had very crisp, clear, and naturalistic styles of scenes, but objects may have been distorted. There were subliminal and even sinister intentions, used mirrored images, and repetition.

    • Abstract Impressionism

      • An American art movement that rose after World War II. Artist felt that every brushstroke could engage the unconscious, therefore every stroke/fixture mattered. Emotion and artist personal statements were important. Abstract (not naturally represented subjects), Expressionism (focused on emotions). Major artist is Jackson Pollock.
      • Greenberg model
        • Focused on "art for art's sake." Works about the medium of painting itself.
      • Rosenberg model
        • Focused on recording/documentation of an action or performance. Use of color is a major factor in this model.

    • Pop Art

      • Incorporates ideas and images from pop culture and mass media. Examples of this include paintings of Marilyn Monroe, product images, and comic books. It's meant to show mass production, or the machine taking over. Repetition can be observed in this art movement. Pop Art also went against the Abstract Expressionism movement, as artist felt the previous movement took itself too seriously. Paintings were very slick, and there are no signs of brush strokes.

    • Land Art

      • Artists broke away from museums and moved into vast open spaces to create art, usually midwest USA. Land Art includes sculpture and performances. Artists used landscapes as their canvas. Many elements of minimalism can be observed in Land Art. In a way Land Art is about personal exploration by the viewer (conceptual art).

  • Terms

    • Age of Reason:  advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine.
    • Enlightenment:  was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe and the American colonies. Its purpose was to reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith and revelation) and advance knowledge through science.
    • Neo-classicism:  A revival of ancient Greek and Roman styles in art and architecture in the 18th and 19th centuries, which was characterized by order, symmetry and simplicity. (America has a lot of Neoclassicism in architecture)
    • Romanticism:  A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual. Celebrated nature rather than civilization; "Romanticism valued imagination and emotion over rationality"
    • Painterly:  A painting technique in which forms are created with patches of color, exploiting color and tonal relationships. Uses broad brush strokes, indistinct outlines between shapes, and colors blended into each other.
    • The Sublime:  idea of being comfortably overwhelmed by something.
    • Salon de Refuses:  was an art exhibition that took place in Paris in 1863, showing works that had been rejected by the official Paris Salon or French Academy.
    • Impressionism:  style or movement in painting originating in France in the 1860s, characterized by a concern with depicting the visual impression of the moment, esp. in terms of the shifting effect of light and color.
    • Avant-Garde:  forging ahead. Doing something that hasn't been done before. Derived in the 19th century from the French term designating the front lines in a military conflict.
    • Readymade:  objects elevated from the commonplace to the position of art.
    • Abstract Expressionism:  Art that is non-representational. Art about the medium of paint itself. An action or record. Major emphasis on color and the creative spontaneous.

Art Works

When you see an art piece, as yourself, "what makes that art piece part of a certain era?"  If you can recall details then you should do fine on any test.  If you need to,  open another tab and read through the outline while viewing the following images.

Note: these images have not been copied/pasted onto my own servers, therefore the servers hosting them may block this blog from displaying them.

Jacques Louis-David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 (Neo-Classical)

Jacques Louis-David, Death of Marat, 1793 (Neo-Classical)

Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, painted in 1814 (Romanticism)

J.M. W. Tuner, Slave Ship, 1840 (Romanticism)

Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818 (Romanticism)

E. Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830 (Romanticism)

G. Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849-50 (Realism)

E. Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863 (Realism)

C. Monet, Impression: Sunrise, 1872 (Impressionism)

P. Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876 (Impressionism)

George Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884-86 (Post-Impressionism)

V. van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889 (Post-Impressionism)

P. Cezanne, Mt. St. Victiore, 1890 (Post-Impressionism)

H. Matisse, Red Room, 1908 (Fauvism)

P. Picasso, Mademoiselles de Avignon, 1907 (Cubism)

P. Picasso, Guernica, 1937 (Cubism)

C. Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1928 (Futurism)

M. Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 (Dada)

S. Dali, Persistence of Memory, 1931 (Surrealism)

J. Pollock, Lavender Mist, 1948 (Abstract Expressionism)

A. Warhol, Campbell Soup Cans, 1962 (Pop Art)

R. Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970 (Land Art)

Art Definition: "Art stands for 'Artificial' as in man by human skill, thus opposed to nature made."

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